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The Instuctors and students of True Edge Academy are not only accomplished martial artists, but are also expected to be competent scholars of the Historical European Martial Arts. In fact, conducting and publishing research projects on the topic is a requirement for advancement. Some of the research results are available below, and many more articles will be posted here as opportunity permits.


Research Articles:


The Wiktenauer is an online Wiki database dedicated to the masters, manuals, and techniques of Historical European Martial Arts. The Wiktenauer is an open-source service provided by the HEMA Alliance for its members and the general public. Members of True Edge Academy are key contributors in making the Wiktenauer the most comprehensive source of HEMA information on the Web. Visit now



A structural analysis and play-by-play comparison of Fiore’s four manuals and the derivative works of Vadi, Ludwig von Eyb, and the anonymous creator of the Codex 5278, as well as a comprehensive summary of the resources currently available both online and in print. By Michael Chidester Download now



Paulus Kal was a 15th Century German fencing master. Included in his 1470 fencing manual is an honor role of masters, perhaps all of them deceased, that he described as the Society of Liechtenauer. While a few of these masters remain unknown, the majority wrote treatises of their own and this list stands as an independent confirmation of their relation. His book is also interesting in that it represents the first attempt to illustrate Liechtenauer's Markverse. By Michael Chidester Learn more



Jörg Wilhalm (1501 - 1575) was a 16th century German fencing master. His writings clearly show that he stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, the grand master of the principle German martial tradition. Wilhalm's treatise appears in five manuscripts written between 1522 and 1523. It is similar in character to the glosses of Liechtenauer's verse written by various masters of the 15th century, but unlike most of these Wilhalm's work is fully illustrated. By Michael Chidester Learn more



The Nuremberg Group is a series of manuscripts that describe a common set of techniques and seem to have originated in the area of Nuremberg, Germany. It has been suggested that these treatises define a local martial arts tradition native to that city, which would be a subset of the mainstream German style. The first two sections of the Codex Wallerstein are the oldest entry in the group, and it's possible that the later treatises are dependent on it, particularly that of Albrecht Dürer. A late entry in the Nuremberg group is the treatise of Antonius Rast. By Michael Chidester Learn more



Sigmund von Ein Ringeck was a 15th Century German fencing master. While Ringeck seems to be the author of the core text of the MS Dresden C 487, glosses of Johannes Liechtenauer's markverse on Bloßfechten (unarmored longsword), Kampffechten (armored fencing), and Roßfechten (mounted fencing), the manuscript also contains a number of treatises by other masters and was most likely not the direct work of Ringeck himself. Nevertheless, the fact that he authored one of the few complete glosses of Liechtenauer's text makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the 15th century. By Michael Chidester Learn more


Philippo di VadiPHILIPPO DI VADI

Philippo di Vadi Pisano was a 15th Century Italian fencing master. He is credited with writing at least one treatise on fencing, titled De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi. Vadi was probably an initiate of the tradition of Fiore delli Liberi, as both his teachings and his writings closely mirror those of the earlier master. Though his manual is dedicated to Duke Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, his exact position in or relationship to the Duke's court is unknown. By Michael Chidester Learn more


the Gladiatoria GroupTHE GLADIATORIA GROUP

The Gladiatoria Group is a series of several German manuscripts from the 15th century that share the same art style and cover the same material--various types of armored combat. These are interesting books in that they seem to be contemporary with the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, but not directly influenced by it. The core of the Gladiatoria group is a series of plays of armored fencing following the traditional progression of a judicial duel: beginning with spears, moving to longswords, then employing daggers on foot and on the ground. By Michael Chidester and John Harmston Learn more



Member-published Literature:

Amazon picture of Polearms of Pauls Hector MairPOLEARMS OF PAULS HECTOR MAIR

In Polearms of Paulus Hector Mair, authors David Knight and Brian Hunt make their contribution to the endeavor that Mair began so many centuries ago. Working from both the German and Latin versions of Mair's Opus, they present chapters on combat with the poleax, halberd, spear and shortstaff, and lance and longstaff, with text in the original German and Latin, along with the English translation. The illustrations, taken from the Dresden codices, C93 and C94, have been meticulously restored to give a clear view of the techniques. Learn more



Amazon picture of Masters of Medieval and Renaissance Martial ArtsMASTERS OF MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE MARTIAL ARTS

Brian Hunt is one of the respected names in medieval and Renaissance scholarship that came together to present a variety of fighting lore from the rich heritage of the European fight masters, circa 1350 to 1675. The list of legendary fighters and instructors contained within these pages reads like a combat honor roll and includes Johannes Liechtenauer, Fiore dei Liberi, Giacomo di Grassi, Henry de Sainct Didier, Joseph Swetnam and Hugues Wittenwiller. Historical documents translated and analyzed include Das Solothurner Fechtbuch, Le Jeu de la Hache, and the Gladiatoria. Learn more